Metis Pioneers
Marie Rose Delorme Smith and Isabella Clark Hardisty Lougheed


Metis Pioneers

In Metis Pioneers, Doris Jeanne MacKinnon compares the survival strategies of two Metis women born during the fur trade—one from the French-speaking free trade tradition and one from the English-speaking Hudson’s Bay Company tradition—who settled in southern Alberta as the Canadian West transitioned to a sedentary agricultural and industrial economy. MacKinnon provides rare insight into their lives, demonstrating the contributions Metis women made to the building of the Prairie West. This is a compelling tale of two women’s acts of quiet resistance in the final days of the British Empire.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Front cover 1
Title page 4
Copyright page 5
Dedication 6
Contents 8
Acknowledgements 10
Note on Terminology 12
Note on Sources 16
Note on Names 18
Introduction 20
1 Being and Becoming Metis 30
2 The Ties That Bind 54
3 Gracious Womanhood 100
4 With This Economy We Do Wed 156
5 Trader Delorme’s Family 218
6 Queen of the Jughandle 256
7 Fenced In 314
8 Many Voices—One People 354
Notes 378
Bibliography 494
Index 536
About the Author 586